Inthe Academy Award-winning epic movie Gone with the Wind ignored the authority and risked being fined rather than removing profane language from their final cuts. Today the number of profanities in movies has increased significantly.
Beyond this most general definition, however, the nature of the director's job, and the relative importance of the director's creative contribution to the finished product, varies greatly among different forms and genres of television. One basic distinction in TV production exists between single-camera film-style and multi-camera work.
In single-camera production each shot is staged individually, allowing precise camera positioning and lighting. Repeated "takes" are shot until the director is satisfied with the results. The action is filmed or taped out-of-sequence based on a logic of set-ups for camera and lighting.
Actors must break their performance into non-continuous bits that still appear coherent when assembled later in the editing room. In this type of production, then, performance is adjusted to fit the visual scheme.
Virtually all prime-time television dramas, programs generally one hour or longer, are produced in this manner. Common genres include action-adventure, crime, medical, courtroom, melodrama, and "prime-time soap opera.
Yet, even here the director's role is more limited than a film director's. The series nature of television necessitates an exceptionally demanding production schedule and a rigid organization of labor, giving the director certain responsibilities, removing or restricting others.
In the production of films for theatrical exhibition directors frequently devise and initiate their own projects. Many film directors, such as Oliver Stone and Quentin Tarrantino, write their own screenplays. Even in cases where the director is hired after a producer has initiated a project, and a script has already been commissioned, the director has great leeway to interpret the material in her or his own way.
In addition to controlling visual style, the director may also develop the themes, work with actors on characterizations, even participate in the rewriting of the script. Television directors, however, work on a per-episode basis. Because of the highly compressed production schedule, any series will employ several different directors during a season.
When the director arrives on the scene, the characterizations, themes and basic style of the show have already been established by previous episodes.
In fact, such creative decisions were often made by the show's producer in the development of the series, and they remain the province of the producer during the run of the show. The director, then, takes an existing, basic aesthetic set-up and works out the details for the episode at hand.
When film directors--Steven Speilberg, Michael Mann, David Lynch--work in television, they generally act as producers because that from that position the more important creative choices are made. Nevertheless, the direction of TV drama episodes still offers excellent opportunities for creative expression.
A number of TV drama directors, including Spielberg, have gone on to become film directors. This was even more the case in the s and s when television served as a training ground for some of the most prominent directors to work in the American film industry.
More recently, some television directors, such as Thomas Carter, noted for directing outstanding pilots for Miami Vice and other shows, have become producers of their own television series.
And in some cases prominent film directors--Lynch, Barry Levinson--have chosen to direct episodes in the series they produce. In the spring of Quentin Tarrantino elected to direct the concluding episode of the first year of the NBC series E. In contrast to single-camera style, multi-camera television production requires that the visual scheme be adjusted around the performance.
The on-camera talent deliver their performances in real-time, and the visualization is created by switching among a series of cameras trained on the unfolding event and, in many cases, among several channels of electronically stored graphics.
All "live" programs, including news and sports broadcasts, are produced this way. So, too, are talk, discussion and game shows which are shot "live-to-tape," then later broadcast with minimal editing.
Directing in these genres offers less opportunity for creativity. Multi-camera style in itself introduces great technical limitations, but these are often less restricting than the constraints defined by the forms themselves--how much visual flair is desirable in a shot of Peter Jennings reading a report of the latest Mid-East conflict?
Usually, then, the visual elements in presentational "event" programs such as news, talk and sports generally follow a rigid pre-set pattern. This is a necessity given that the production needs to be created almost instantaneously, with little or no time to prepare for the specifics of the particular episode.Television can be a powerful influence in developing value systems and shaping behavior.
Unfortunately, much of today's television programming is violent. Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children may:attheheels.com · Oct.
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Catholics try, rather unconvincingly, to show how conferring sainthood is different in principle to the pagan apotheosis (the process that made Claudius, for instance, into a God), but the distinction doesn't quite wash.
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