Resources The Edexcel Specification also expects you to understand Freud's theories as an alternative to the biological explanation of individual differences. Parts of this page that are helpful for that are marked with the green Freud icon The Specification also expects you to understand Freud's theories as an alternative to the biological explanation of development. An instinct is an unreflective urge within members of a species that is present from birth though it may get weaker or stronger later in life. Instincts can be restrained by willpower or training or encouraged by provocation and frustration.
Case study relational aggression publisher's final edited version of this article is available at School Psych Rev See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.
The problem of youth violence has become a national priority given both the cost and repercussions to youth, our school systems, and to society Eisenbraun, Although many research studies, books, and popular press articles have been devoted to this important topic, most of these prior investigations of youth aggressive behaviors have several key limitations, which include the following: Over the past two decades there has been increasing research examining gender differences in the expression of aggression.
This research has suggested that boys typically display their aggression through direct, physical means, often termed physical or overt aggression e. As such, developing early interventions for relational aggressors and victims holds much promise for improving the health and well-being of school-age children, their schools, and their communities.
It is crucial that school-based professionals, especially school psychologists, be involved in the development, implementation, and evaluation of school-based interventions for relational aggression Leff et al.
In fact, there have only been two special series on the topic of relational aggression, and no prior systematic collection of articles associated with relational aggression in any school psychology journal.
Nine programs are identified, and the strengths and limitations of each program are discussed. Finally, the authors recommend areas of further research for school-based programming for relational aggression and discuss implications from the intervention research for school-based providers.
The results demonstrated that this relatively brief universal prevention program appears to reduce rates of malicious gossip on school playgrounds.
Although the preliminary evaluation of three brief workshops with teachers and students on the problem of relational aggression indicated that adaptations were necessary to the curriculum, the preliminary program suggested that participants may have improved their knowledge regarding specific aspects of relational aggression.
The final article describes how one of the first interventions for urban relationally aggressive girls Leff et al. The resulting Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday Program PRAISE consists of 20 sessions that are cofacilitated by therapists and the classroom teacher; primary teaching modalities include culturally adapted cartoons, video illustrations, and role plays.
Preliminary results indicate that the program was rated as being quite acceptable and feasible, and positive findings were demonstrated for relationally aggressive girls and all girls within the intervention condition.
However, the program was not particularly effective for boys, which suggests some adaptations for future research on the PRAISE Program. Finally, the special series concludes with commentaries from two leaders in school- and community-based aggression prevention, Bonnie Leadbeater and Hill Walker.
Their commentaries will help readers understand the contributions of the individual articles and the special series, and suggest future areas for research and practice in the development and validation of programs for relational aggression and victimization.
He directs two National Institute of Mental Health funded intervention programs: His publications and research interests include aggression prevention in the urban schools and community, gender and social cognitive differences in the expression of aggression, integrity monitoring of interventions, and partnership-based approaches to measurement and intervention development.
She is internationally known for her pioneering research on relational aggression, work that has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute of Child Health and Development as well as from private foundations such as the Harry Guggenheim Foundation and the William T.
Contributor Information Stephen S. Crick, University of Minnesota. Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment.
Relational aggression, gender, and social psychological adjustment. Prevalence, prediction, and prevention.The Early Childhood Friendship Project is a school-based program designed to reduce aggression among preschool children. It targets both physical and social bullying (physical and relational aggression).
A preliminary evaluation found several large positive impacts on bullying, but none were. relational aggression, whereas males exhibit more physical aggression and less relational. As the current literature review is focused solely on physical aggression, there may be some gender bias.
Asperger’s and Aggression 6 scattered case studies, which will be discussed below. This study focused on romantic relational aggression, a variable that appears to predict intimate partner violence but remains understudied in the college population.
This is particularly the case for adolescent girls, who value the intimacy they find in small close-knit friendship study of adolescent friendships and the way in which cross-sex relationships emerged is documented in his research on the five developmental stages of transition for referred to as “relational” aggression (Crick For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = ), examining potential gender and race differences, has been the case in many prior studies with children and early adolescents (e.g., Olafsen & Viemerö, ; Sullivan et al., ).
This article presents the findings of a case study undertaken with the year 5 girls in one school to investigate their experiences and understanding of covert intimidation, as well as the effects and impact of these practices in the school setting.