The Theory of Citizen Participation Introduction Citizen participation is a process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process. The roots of citizen participation can be traced to ancient Greece and Colonial New England. Before the s, governmental processes and procedures were designed to facilitate "external" participation. Public involvement is means to ensure that citizens have a direct voice in public decisions.
Magic in North America Part 1: In Uncategorized by Adrienne K.
You can read that here. So this morning at 9am, part one of this mess was released. There are a number of things that stand out and deeply concern me, but the response to my critiques on my twitter timeline is even worse. This has the perfect storm of all of those categories. I really could write a dissertation about this, but I have a million papers to grade and work to do, so a quick rundown: Part 1 of MinNA, The 14th to 17th century, starts with this: Various modes of magical travel — brooms and Apparition among them — not to mention visions and premonitions, meant that even far-flung wizarding communities were in contact with each other from the Middle Ages onwards.
The Native American magical community and those of Europe and Africa had known about each other long before the immigration of European No-Majs in the seventeenth century. They were already aware of the many similarities between their communities.
The overall ratio of wizards to non-wizards seemed consistent across populations, as did the attitudes of No-Majs, wherever they were born. In the Native American community, some witches and wizards were accepted and even lauded within their tribes, gaining reputations for healing as medicine men, or outstanding hunters.
However, others were stigmatised for their beliefs, often on the basis that they were possessed by malevolent spirits. Even in a fictional wizarding world. A legend grew up around the Native American Animagi, that they had sacrificed close family members to gain their powers of transformation.
In fact, the majority of Animagi assumed animal forms to escape persecution or to hunt for the tribe. Such derogatory rumours often originated with No-Maj medicine men, who were sometimes faking magical powers themselves, and fearful of exposure.
Where will this get us? Who benefits from this and why? What did I decide? I am performing a refusal. What you do need to know is that the belief of these things beings? It is connected to many other concepts and many other ceremonial understandings and lifeways.
The other piece here is that Rowling is completely re-writing these traditions. Traditions that come from a particular context, place, understanding, and truth.
Not by any stretch of the imagination. Here is how Rowling responded to questions online about the term: Native communities use reciprocity, respect, and relationships as benchmarks. So good luck with that. The Native American wizarding community was particularly gifted in animal and plant magic, its potions in particular being of a sophistication beyond much that was known in Europe.
The most glaring difference between magic practised by Native Americans and the wizards of Europe was the absence of a wand. The magic wand originated in Europe. Wands channel magic so as to make its effects both more precise and more powerful, although it is generally held to be a mark of the very greatest witches and wizards that they have also been able to produce wandless magic of a very high quality.
As the Native American Animagi and potion-makers demonstrated, wandless magic can attain great complexity, but Charms and Transfiguration are very difficult without one. This whole wandless magic thing is bugging me. AKA colonial narrative The response online today has been awful. This is not the way to learn about or be introduced to contemporary and living Native cultures.
Also worthy of note is that Rowling is known for responding directly to fan questions on twitter, and overall being accessible to her fan base. Despite thousands of tweets directed at her about these concerns, she has not addressed it at all.
So this is the first day of the writings, I truly shudder thinking about the glossy way that first contact and subsequent genocide is going to be addressed.Apr 06, · Warning signs include the relentless grab for more authority by governing parties in Hungary, the Philippines, Poland and Turkey — all United States allies.
THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. CHAPTER ONE Ethnic Nationalism and Civic Nationalism. The discrimination between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism is common in writings on nationalism and nations, whether it be as the civic-ethnic division, the political-cultural, or .
Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions. France. French National syndicalism was an adaptation of Georges Sorel's version of revolutionary syndicalism to the monarchist ideology of integral nationalism, as practised by Action Française.
Action Française was a French nationalist-monarchist movement led by Charles Maurras.. Background (–) In , Charles Maurras declared in . Most recent additions to this Reading Room; David Lane & Andrea Diem-Lane, Listening to the Inner Sound, The Perennial Practice of Shabd Yoga, September Knut K.
Wimberger, The Future of Work and Eduction, and What We Can Do Now, September Keith Price, On Our Alleged Insignificance, September Joe Corbett, Atman .