Patron-client networks[ edit ] Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions.
Further deviation with resentment and hostility towards punishers. Community stigmatizes the deviant as a criminal. Strengthening of deviant conduct because of stigmatizing penalties. Acceptance as role of deviant or criminal actor.
Control theory[ edit ] Control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between the individual and society free people to deviate.
By contrast, strong bonds make deviance costly.
This theory asks why people refrain from deviant or criminal behavior, instead of why people commit deviant or criminal behavior, according to Travis Hirschi. The control theory developed when norms emerge to deter deviant behavior.
Without this "control", deviant behavior would happen more often. This leads to conformity and groups. People will conform to a group when they believe they have more to gain from conformity than by deviance.
If a strong bond is achieved there will be less chance of deviance than if a weak bond has occurred. Hirschi argued a person follows the norms because they have a bond to society.
The bond consists of four positively correlated factors: It stated that acts of force and fraud are undertaken in the pursuit of self-interest and self-control.
A deviant act is based on a criminals own self-control of themselves. Containment theory is considered by researchers such as Walter C. Reckless to be part of the control theory because it also revolves around the thoughts that stop individuals from engaging in crime.
Reckless studied the unfinished approaches meant to explain the reasoning behind delinquency and crime. He recognized that societal disorganization is included in the study of delinquency and crime under social deviance, leading him to claim that the majority of those who live in unstable areas tend not to have criminal tendencies in comparison those who live in middle-class areas.
This claim opens up more possible approaches to social disorganization, and proves that the already implemented theories are in need or a deeper connection to further explore ideas of crime and delinquency.
These observations brought Reckless to ask questions such as, "Why do some persons break through the tottering social controls and others do not?
Why do rare cases in well-integrated society break through the lines of strong controls? Social disorganization was not related to a particular environment, but instead was involved in the deterioration of an individuals social controls.Agricultural Education.
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Synopsis of Psychopathy. Open Document. Below is an essay on "Discuss the Problems Involved in Defining and Measuring Crime and Deviance" from Anti Essays, your source for .