An analysis of the legislative scheme of senator stephen a douglas of illinois

Lyman Trumbull Richard Yates When Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas introduced congressional legislation in January that became the Kansas-Nebraska Act, he inadvertently sowed the seeds of his own political demise. His downfall was slow — culminating in defeat in and death inbut the deterioration of his Illinois base and his national aspirations clearly began in

An analysis of the legislative scheme of senator stephen a douglas of illinois

Anti-Lobbying Provisions in D. An Analysis of Legislative Proposals The Constitution, ratified inprovided for the creation and governance of a permanent home for the national government.

Article I, Section 8, Clause 17, called for the creation of a federal district to serve as the permanent seat of the new national government1 and granted Congress the power To exercise exclusive Legislation, in all Cases whatsoever, over such District not exceeding ten Miles square as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress become the Seat of the Government of the United2 States Citizens residing in the District have no vote in their national legislature, although they pay federal taxes and may vote in presidential elections.

Opponents often note that the Constitution grants only states voting representation in Congress. Issues central to the District of Columbia voting representation debate arguably revolve around two principles of our republican form of government: The debate has 1 Historians often point to the forced adjournment of the Continental Congress while meeting in Philadelphia on June 21,as the impetus for the creation of a federal district.

Congress was forced to adjourn after being menaced for four days by a mob of former soldiers demanding back pay and debt relief. Although the Congress sought assistance and protection from the Governor of Pennsylvania and the state militia, none was forthcoming.

When the Congress reconvened in Princeton, New Jersey, much was made of the need for a federal territory whose protection was not dependent on any state.

One year later, Virginia passed a similar act. Over the years, proposals to give the District voting representation in Congress have sought to achieve their purpose through!

In the recent past, Congress has restricted the ability of the District government to advocate for voting representation. One year after establishing the District of Columbia as the national capital, District residents began seeking representation in the national legislature. As early ascitizens of what was then called the Territory of Columbia voiced concern about their political disenfranchisement.

This body of people is as much entitled to the enjoyment of the rights of citizenship as any other part of the people of the United States. There can exist no necessity for their disenfranchisement, no necessity for them to repose on the mere generosity of their countrymen to be protected from tyranny, to mere spontaneous attention for the regulation of their interests.

They are entitled to4 participation in the general councils on the principles of equity and reciprocity. The prohibition is discussed in Appendix B of this report.

Congress has on numerous occasions considered legislation granting voting representation in the national legislature to District residents, but these attempts have failed to provide permanent voting representation for District residents.

Although the change was challenged in court as unconstitutional, it was upheld by the U. District Court in Michel v. Anderson, and affirmed by the Court of Appeals. On January 24,the new Democratic majority of the House passed a rules change H.

Over the years, proposals to give the District voting representation in Congress have sought to achieve their purpose through a constitutional amendment, retrocession of part of the District back to Maryland, semi-retrocession allowing District residents to be treated like citizens of Maryland for the purpose of voting representation in Congress, statehood and virtual statehood that allow Congress to define the District as a state for the purpose of voting representation in Congress.

Each is discussed below. The most often-introduced proposal for voting rights has taken the form of a constitutional amendment. Since the and resolutions, more than proposals have been introduced that would have used a constitutional amendment to settle the question of voting representation for citizens of the District.

The proposals can be grouped into six general categories: Hereafter cited as Woodward, quoted in Noyes. From toCongress established a territorial form of government for the District with the passage of 16 Stat.

The new government authorized the election of a non-voting delegate to represent the District in the House. Congress abolished this arrangement in the aftermath of a fiscal crisis. InCongressst enacted P. Woodward, a landowner in the city of Washington, served as a member of the city council of Washington.

An analysis of the legislative scheme of senator stephen a douglas of illinois

The proposal, which was never formally introduced, may be found in Appendix A. It is contrary to the genius of our constitution, it is violating an original principal of republicanism, to deny that all who are governed by laws ought to participation in the formulation of them.

He acknowledged the distinction between the Territory of Columbia and states and argued that the Territory, whose residents were citizens of the United States, should be considered half a state and thus entitled to one vote in the Senate.

It took another eighty-seven years before the first proposed constitutional amendment providing for voting representation in Congress for the District of Columbia was formally introduced by Senator Henry Blair of New Hampshire.There were 23 miles of railroad in the U.S.

U.S. Senator Stephen Douglas arranges a checkerboard compromise to create the first federal land grant railroad, the Illinois Central. Early life. Biden was born on November 20, , at St.

Mary's Hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, to Catherine Eugenia Biden (née Finnegan) and Joseph Robinette Biden Sr. He was the first of four siblings in a Catholic family, with a sister and two brothers. His mother was of Irish descent, with roots variously attributed to County Louth or County Londonderry.

Senator Stephen A. Douglas and former Illinois Representative Abraham Lincoln aired their disagreement over the Kansas–Nebraska Act in seven public speeches during September and October Lincoln gave his most comprehensive argument against slavery and the provisions of the act in Peoria, Illinois, on October 16, the Peoria Speech.

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